Give Credit Where It’s Due
It’s essential to credit the sources you use in your research, and that’s why there are standardized style guides for in-text citations and lists of references. In this class, you will format your papers and cite your sources in the style of the American Psychological Association (APA).
See these resources to learn how to use this style.
The APA format, created by the American Psychological Association, is common in the social sciences.
Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.
For legal references such as dockets or court cases, the APA Publication Manual defers to the The Bluebook, a standard legal format. See chapter 11 of the Publication Manual for an overview of legal citations.
Example APA Citation
The APA places a heavy emphasis on date of publication.
Date of publication is used to help distinguish between works, so it is always in the in-text citation and has a more prominent place in the bibliographic entry.
According to Martin and Albers (),
the traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts (p. 245).
Note the following:
The year of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.
The page number appears after the citation. Abbreviate page as p. and pages as pp.
The final punctuation (usually a period) goes outside the parenthetical citation, not inside the closing quotation mark.
Although it had long been believed that the cerbellum serves no fuction aside from balance and coordination, more recent research has modified that view (Martin & Albers, ).
Note the following:
A page number is unnecessary when the information is paraphrased rather than quoted.
If the authors’ names are not called out in the text, then names and year can be placed together in the citation.
A paraphrase must completely reword the thought of the original work to avoid plagiarism.
Martin, P., & Albers, M. (). Cerebellum and schizophrenia: A selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(2), 241–250. https://
This is a citation of a journal article. Note the following:
Date of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.
APA Style is a “down style,” meaning titles are usually lowercase. The one exception is journal titles.
The article title is not set off by quotation marks.
The journal title and volume number are italicized.
For scholarly articles from a database, a web address is usually unnecessary.
However, if the article is from the open web, include an address unless a DOI is available.
The DOI is written as a URL. Always include a DOI if possible, regardless of where you found the source.
No final period follows the DOI or URL.