Give Credit Where It’s Due
It’s essential to credit the sources you use in your research. That’s why there are standardized style guides for in-text citations and lists of references. In this class, you will format your papers and cite your sources in the style of the Modern Language Association (MLA).
See these resources to learn how to use this style.
The MLA format, created by the Modern Language Association, is common in English and the humanities.
Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.
Example MLA Citation
A sample in-text and bibliographic citation are presented here.
See the style guide for more complete and specific rules. You may also notice that all citations in this research guide are in MLA Style.
According to Pamboukian,
Kipling’s short stories and novels exhibit a paradoxical mixture of magic and reality, which may be due, in part, to Kipling’s own ambivalence about the supernatural and enthusiasm for new gadgetry (429).
Note the following:
All of the quoted text is in quotation marks.
The author’s last name is called out in the text.
The page number of the citation appears in parentheses after the closing quotation mark.
If the author’s name were not called out in the text, the name could have been placed in the parentheses next to the page number.
Pamboukian, Sylvia. Science, Magic and Fraud in the Short Stories of Rudyard Kipling. English Literature in Transition, –, vol. 47, no. 4, , pp. 429–445. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2487/
This is a citation of a journal article. Note the following:
The author’s name appears first, followed by the article title in quotation marks.
The title of the journal is italicized.
Following the title are volume, issue, date, and page numbers.
Following the journal information is the “container,” i.e., where the article is stored—in this case an EBSCOhost database.
Container names are italicized.
The final element is the “location,” where the article can be found.
Often, the location will be a “stable” or “permanent” web address copied from the database. In this example, however, the location is instead a DOI, which is a number permanently linked to a scholarly work.
Generally, a DOI is preferable to a URL.