SCOM 1113 Introduction to Speech Communication

Preparation, delivery, & evaluation of oral presentation.

Cite It

Cite It, Don’t Fight It

In your research paper, you will be required to cite your sources using either the style of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or of the American Psychological Association (APA). The resources on this page will help you learn how to use these styles.

MLA Format

The MLA format, created by the Modern Language Association, is common in English and the humanities.

Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.

Style Guides

Example MLA Citation

A sample in-text and bibliographic citation are presented here.

See the style guide for more complete and specific rules. You may also notice that all citations in this research guide are in MLA Style.

In-Text Citation

According to Pamboukian, Kipling’s short stories and novels exhibit a paradoxical mixture of magic and reality, which may be due, in part, to Kipling’s own ambivalence about the supernatural and enthusiasm for new gadgetry (429).

Note the following:

  • All of the quoted text is in quotation marks.

  • The author’s last name is called out in the text.

  • The page number of the citation appears in parentheses after the closing quotation mark.

  • If the author’s name were not called out in the text, the name could have been placed in the parentheses next to the page number.

Bibliographic Entry

Pamboukian, Sylvia. Science, Magic and Fraud in the Short Stories of Rudyard Kipling. English Literature in Transition, , vol. 47, no. 4, , pp. 429–445. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2487/72G3-5668-57JT-82GG.

This is a citation of a journal article. Note the following:

  • The author’s name appears first, followed by the article title in quotation marks.

  • The title of the journal is italicized.

  • Following the title are volume, issue, date, and page numbers.

  • Following the journal information is the “container,” i.e., where the article is stored—in this case an EBSCOhost database.

  • Container names are italicized.

  • The final element is the “location,” where the article can be found.

  • Often, the location will be a “stable” or “permanent” web address copied from the database. In this example, however, the location is instead a DOI, which is a number permanently linked to a scholarly work.

  • Generally, a DOI is preferable to a URL.

APA Format

The APA format, created by the American Psychological Association, is common in the social sciences.

Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.

Style Guide

Legal Citations

For legal references such as dockets or court cases, the APA Publication Manual defers to the The Bluebook, a standard legal format. See chapter 11 of the Publication Manual for an overview of legal citations.

Example APA Citation

The APA places a heavy emphasis on date of publication.

Date of publication is used to help distinguish between works, so it is always in the in-text citation and has a more prominent place in the bibliographic entry.

In-Text Citation

Quotation

According to Martin and Albers (), the traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts (p. 245).

Note the following:

  • The year of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.

  • The page number appears after the citation. Abbreviate page as p. and pages as pp.

  • The final punctuation (usually a period) goes outside the parenthetical citation, not inside the closing quotation mark.

Paraphrase

Although it had long been believed that the cerbellum serves no fuction aside from balance and coordination, more recent research has modified that view (Martin & Albers, ).

Note the following:

  • A page number is unnecessary when the information is paraphrased rather than quoted.

  • If the authors’ names are not called out in the text, then names and year can be placed together in the citation.

  • A paraphrase must completely reword the thought of the original work to avoid plagiarism.

Bibliographic Entry

Martin, P., & Albers, M. (). Cerebellum and schizophrenia: A selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(2), 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/21.2.241

This is a citation of a journal article. Note the following:

  • Date of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.

  • APA Style is a “down style,” meaning titles are usually lowercase. The one exception is journal titles.

  • The article title is not set off by quotation marks.

  • The journal title and volume number are italicized.

  • For scholarly articles from a database, a web address is usually unnecessary.

  • However, if the article is from the open web, include an address unless a DOI is available.

  • The DOI is written as a URL. Always include a DOI if possible, regardless of where you found the source.

  • No final period follows the DOI or URL.

Example Citations

Example Citations

You must cite your sources both in the text and at the end of your paper.

Both MLA and APA styles use parenthetical referencing—that is, in-text citations set off by parentheses.

MLA Style

A sample in-text and bibliographic citation are presented here.

See the style guide for more complete and specific rules. You may also notice that all citations in this research guide are in MLA Style.

In-Text Citation

According to Pamboukian, Kipling’s short stories and novels exhibit a paradoxical mixture of magic and reality, which may be due, in part, to Kipling’s own ambivalence about the supernatural and enthusiasm for new gadgetry (429).

Note the following:

  • All of the quoted text is in quotation marks.

  • The author’s last name is called out in the text.

  • The page number of the citation appears in parentheses after the quote.

  • If the author’s name was not called out in the text, the name could have been placed in the parentheses next to the page number.

Bibliographic Entry

Pamboukian, Sylvia. “Science, Magic and Fraud in the Short Stories of Rudyard Kipling.” English Literature in Transition, , vol. 47, no. 4, , pp. 429–445. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2487/72G3-5668-57JT-82GG.

This is a citation of a journal article. Note the following:

  • The author’s name appears first, followed by the article title in quotation marks.

  • The title of the journal is italicized.

  • Following the title are volume, issue, date, and page numbers.

  • Following the journal information is the “container,” i.e., where the article is stored—in this case an EBSCOhost database.

  • Container names are italicized.

  • The final element is the “location,” where the article can be found.

  • Often, the location will be a “stable” or “permanent” web address copied from the database. In this example, however, the location is instead a DOI, which is a number permanently linked to a scholarly work.

  • Generally, a DOI is preferable to a URL.

APA Style

The APA places a heavy emphasis on date of publication.

Date of publication is used to help distinguish between works, so it is always in the in-text citation and has a more prominent place in the bibliographic entry.

In-Text Citation

Quotation

According to Martin and Albers (), the traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts (p. 245).

Note the following:

  • The year of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.

  • The page number appears after the citation. Abbreviate page as p. and pages as pp.

  • The final punctuation (usually a period) goes outside the parenthetical citation, not inside the closing quotation mark.

Paraphrase

Although it had long been believed that the cerbellum serves no fuction aside from balance and coordination, more recent research has modified that view (Martin & Albers, ).

Note the following:

  • A page number is unnecessary when the information is paraphrased rather than quoted.

  • If the authors’ names are not called out in the text, then names and year can be placed together in the citation.

  • A paraphrase must completely reword the thought of the original work to avoid plagiarism.

Bibliographic Entry

Martin, P., & Albers, M. (). Cerebellum and schizophrenia: A selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(2), 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/21.2.241

This is a citation of a journal article. Note the following:

  • Date of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.

  • APA Style is a “down style,” meaning titles are usually lowercase. The one exception is journal titles.

  • The article title is not set off by quotation marks.

  • The journal title and volume number are italicized.

  • For scholarly articles from a database, a web address is usually unnecessary.

  • However, if the article is from the open web, include an address unless a DOI is available.

  • The DOI is written as a URL. Always include a DOI if possible, regardless of where you found the source.

  • No final period follows the DOI or URL.

Citation Websites

Quick Links

Find Numbers and Identifiers

Legal and Government Publications

Infographic: Am I Plagiarizing?

Infographic explaining that all information from another source must be cited.
Kirschenbaum, Michele. “Am I Plagiarizing?: An Advanced Infographic.” EasyBib Blog, , www.easybib.com/guides/am-i-plagiarizing-advanced-infographic. Accessed .