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AMST 5113 Interdisciplinary Research in American Studies

Students will write a master’s thesis or an article suitable for publication.

Cite It

Give Credit

Be sure to cite your sources in your research. If you plan to publish your work, use whatever citation style is required by the journal to which you submit.

Resources on this page include information on both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA) styles.

MLA Style

The MLA Style, created by the Modern Language Association, is common in English and the humanities.

Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.

Style Guide

APA Style

The APA Style, created by the American Psychological Association, is common in the social sciences.

Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.

Style Guide

Legal Citations

For legal references such as dockets or court cases, the APA Publication Manual defers to The Bluebook, a standard legal format. See chapter 11 of the Publication Manual for an overview of legal citations.

Example Citations

MLA Style

A sample in-text citation and bibliographic entry for a journal article are presented here.

See the style guide for more complete and specific rules. You may also notice that all citations in this research guide are in MLA Style.

In-Text Citation

According to Pamboukian, Kipling’s short stories and novels exhibit a paradoxical mixture of magic and reality, which may be due, in part, to Kipling’s own ambivalence about the supernatural and enthusiasm for new gadgetry (429).

Note the following:

  • Place all quoted text in quotation marks.

  • Place the page number of the citation in parentheses after the closing quotation mark.

  • Name the author in the text (as here) or place the author’s name in the parentheses before the page number.

Bibliographic Entry

Pamboukian, Sylvia. “Science, Magic and Fraud in the Short Stories of Rudyard Kipling.” English Literature in Transition, , vol. 47, no. 4, , pp. 429–445. EBSCOhost,

Note the following:

  • Place the author’s name first, followed by the article title in quotation marks.

  • Italicize the journal title.

  • For journal articles, include volume, issue, date, and page numbers.

  • Following the journal information, include any other container, i.e., where the article is stored—in this case an EBSCOhost database.

  • Italicize container names.

  • Finally, include the location where the article can be found.

  • Use a “stable” or “permanent” web address as the location unless a DOI is available.

  • Always include a DOI if possible.

APA Style

The APA places a heavy emphasis on date of publication.

Date of publication helps distinguish between works, so it is always in the in-text citation and has a prominent place in the bibliographic entry.

In-Text Citation


According to Martin and Albers (), the traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts (p. 245).

Note the following:

  • Place the year of publication immediately after the authors’ names.

  • Place the page number after the citation. Abbreviate page as p. and pages as pp.

  • Place the closing punctuation mark (usually a period) outside the parenthetical citation.


Although it had long been believed that the cerbellum serves no fuction aside from balance and coordination, more recent research has modified that view (Martin & Albers, ).

Note the following:

  • You don’t need to cite a page number when you paraphrase.

  • If you don’t name the authors in the text, place the names before the year in the citation.

  • When you paraphrase, completely reword the thought of the original work to avoid plagiarism.

Bibliographic Entry

Martin, P., & Albers, M. (). Cerebellum and schizophrenia: A selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(2), 241–250.

Note the following:

  • Date of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.

  • Write article or book titles in sentence case. Write journal titles in title case.

  • Do not place quotation marks around the article title.

  • Italicize the journal title and volume number.

  • If the article is from the open web, include an address unless a DOI is available.

  • Include a DOI, written as a URL, whenever possible.

  • Do not place a final period after a DOI or URL.

Citation Websites

Quick Links

Find Numbers and Identifiers

Legal and Government Publications

Figure 1
Am I Plagiarizing?
Infographic explaining that all information from another source must be cited.

Note. From “Am I Plagiarizing: An Advanced Infographic,” by M. Kirschenbaum, , EasyBib Blog ( Copyright by EasyBib. Used with permission.