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EDUC 5010 Graduate Study Seminar

Introduction to graduate study.

Revisiting Research

Tools for Graduate Students

Take advantages of the resources available to you. This page features a refresher on peer-reviewed literature and a quick overview of APA citations.

APA Style

The APA Style, created by the American Psychological Association, is common in the social sciences.

Find the handbook at the library or explore the linked websites to learn how to use this style.

Style Guide

Legal Citations

For legal references such as dockets or court cases, the APA Publication Manual defers to The Bluebook, a standard legal format. See chapter 11 of the Publication Manual for an overview of legal citations.

APA Template

Keep the requirements of APA Style at your fingertips with this complete, ready-made template.

To Use this Document

  1. Download and open the file in Microsoft Word.

  2. Select FileSave AsThis PC.

  3. Select any location to save the file.

  4. In the Save As dialog box, select Word Template (*.dotx) from the Save as type: dropdown menu.

  5. Give the file any name you wish (e.g., “APA Format”) and select Save.

The template will now be available whenever you open Word.

Bibliography Cheat Sheet

This document contains examples of the most common types of bibliographic entries, with explanations.

Example APA Citations

The APA places a heavy emphasis on date of publication.

Date of publication helps distinguish between works, so it is always in the in-text citation and has a prominent place in the bibliographic entry. See the style guide for more specific rules, and see the following example of a cited journal article.

In-Text Citation

Direct Quotation

A direct quotation is text taken directly from a source.

To avoid plagiarism, you must always mark a quotation with quotation marks.

The citation for a direct quote must include:

  • The authors’ names

  • The year of publication

  • The page number or, if the source has no page numbers, the paragraph number or name of the cited section

The citation for a direct quote may be either narrative or parenthetical:

Narrative Citation

In a narrative citation, the body of the text contains information about the source of a quote. In this example, the narrative tells the reader the names of the quote’s authors:

According to Martin and Albers (), the traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts (p. 245).

Place in parentheses any part of the citation not mentioned in the narrative. The year of publication should always be next to the authors’s names, but the page number can go after the quote.

Parenthetical Citation

If the authors’s names or other elements of the citation are not in the narrative, place them in parentheses after the quote:

The traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts (Martin & Albers, , p. 245).

Each of the three essential elements of a citation is present, separated by commas, inside the parentheses.

Note the following:

  • Keep the year of publication near the authors’ names.

  • Always include the page number or other section identifier with a direct quotation. Abbreviate page as p. and pages as pp.

  • Place the final punctuation mark to the right of the parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation goes outside the quotation mark but inside the period.

Narrative Citation

According to Martin and Albers (), it is no longer universally believed in the field of neuroscience that the cerebellum’s function is limited to balance and coordination.

Parenthetical Citation

Although it had long been believed that the cerbellum serves no fuction aside from balance and coordination, more recent research has modified that view (Martin & Albers, ).

Note the following:

  • A page number is unnecessary when you paraphrase, though you may still include it if you wish.

  • If you don’t name the authors in the text, place the names in a parenthetical citation.

  • Always place names and publication year next to each other.

  • When you paraphrase, completely reword the thought of the original work to avoid plagiarism.

Block Quotation

According to Martin and Albers () in their overview of the relationship between schizophrenia and the cerebellum,

The same or analogous neuronal substrates may be involved in motor control as well as in cognition and emotion.

In addition to this general objection, the traditional opinion that the cerebellum is exclusively associated with the control of balance, fine motor, and oculomotor coordination has been challenged on various fronts. (p. 245)

Note the following:

  • Place a quotation longer than forty words in a block quotation.

  • Indent the entire block quotation half an inch.

  • If you quote more than one paragraph, indent every paragraph after the first an additional half inch.

  • Do not place quotation marks around a block quotation.

  • Place the parenthetical citation after the final punctuation mark.

Bibliographic Entry

Martin, P., & Albers, M. (). Cerebellum and schizophrenia: A selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(2), 241–250.

Note the following:

  • Date of publication immediately follows the authors’ names.

  • Write article or book titles in sentence case. Write journal titles in title case.

  • Do not place quotation marks around the article title.

  • Italicize the journal title and volume number.

  • If the article is from the open web, include an address unless a DOI is available.

  • Include a DOI, written as a URL, whenever possible.

  • Do not place a final period after a DOI or URL.

Peer Review

What is Peer Review?

For almost all of your research, you will use scholarly, academic, or peer-reviewed sources.

Peer-reviewed sources are written by specialists for other specialists, are usually technical in nature, and present original research. Before publication, they are reviewed by experts to ensure that they meet certain standards—hence the term peer review.

Peer review
A process by which scholarly articles are assessed to ensure they meet standards of accuracy and quality before publication. Peer review may be single blind or double blind. In double-blind review, the reviewers do not know the author of an article or the author’s affiliation, to guard against bias.

Limiting to Peer-Reviewed Sources

Figure 1
Limiters in an EBSCO Database
Detail of the sidebar in an EBSCO database.

Most of our databases are curated by the company EBSCO, and thus have a similar appearance.

After you conduct a search, you can usually limit results to peer-reviewed sources by selecting the option Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals from the left sidebar.

Sometimes, this limiter is unavailable. However, you can still limit to specific types of sources, such as Academic Journals.

Ask a Librarian

Every discipline has a library liaison focused on helping you find and use research materials.

Find out who your librarian is:

Table 1
Library Faculty Liaisons
DepartmentLibrarianPhone Number
School of Arts & Sciences
CommunicationDouglas Davidson580-327-8572
English, Foreign Language, & HumanitiesDouglas Davidson580-327-8572
Fine ArtsShawna Gilbert580-327-8576
Math & Computer ScienceShawna Gilbert580-327-8576
Natural ScienceDouglas Davidson580-327-8572
Social SciencesShawna Gilbert580-327-8576
Social WorkShawna Gilbert580-327-8576
AgricultureDouglas Davidson580-327-8572
EducationShannon Leaper580-327-8570
Health & Sports Science EducationShawna Gilbert580-327-8576
PsychologyDouglas Davidson580-327-8572
Professional Studies
BusinessShannon Leaper580-327-8570
NursingDouglas Davidson580-327-8572
Graduate StudiesShannon Leaper580-327-8570

Contact the Research Librarian

The research librarian is Douglas Davidson. You can contact him at or 580-327-8572. Or see his profile:

Hints & Tips

  • Understand what information you can get immediately and what you need to plan in advance for.

  • Keep up to date with what’s going on in your field.

  • Review the standards for human subject research if you are involved in primary research. See the Institutional Review Board.

  • You can set up services to alert you when new content is published in your favorite journals.